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BRAMU specialises in neglected tropical diseases, such as dengue and Chagas, and other infectious diseases. This medical unit is based in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Find important research based on our field experience on our dedicated Field Research website.

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Providing epidemiological expertise to underpin our operations, conducting research and training to support our goal of providing medical aid in areas where people are affected by conflict, epidemics, disasters, or excluded from health care. Evaluation Units have been established in Vienna, Stockholm, and Paris, assessing the potential and limitations of medical humanitarian action, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of our medical humanitarian work.

Our Programmes

The Luxembourg Operational Research LuxOR unit coordinates field research projects and operational research training, and provides support for documentation activities and routine data collection. The Intersectional Benchmarking Unit collects and analyses data about local labour markets in all locations where MSF employs people. This Guide explains the terms, concepts, and rules of humanitarian law in accessible and reader-friendly alphabetical entries.

The MSF Paediatric Days is an event for paediatric field staff, policy makers and academia to exchange ideas, align efforts, inspire and share frontline research to advance urgent paediatric issues of direct concern for the humanitarian field. The MSF Foundation aims to create a fertile arena for logistics and medical knowledge-sharing to meet the needs of MSF and the humanitarian sector as a whole. We provide medical assistance to people affected by conflict, epidemics, disasters, or exclusion from healthcare. Our teams are made up of tens of thousands of health professionals, logistic and administrative staff - most of them hired locally.

Life in The Deadly World of Medicine

Our actions are guided by medical ethics and the principles of impartiality, independence and neutrality. Nigeria Is counter-terrorism killing humanitarian action in Nigeria? Op-Ed 22 Nov In Nigeria, the essence of humanitarian action is threatened if entire communities are considered "the enemy", says MSF's director of operations. Infectious diseases such as smallpox, cholera, diphtheria, pneumonia, typhoid fever, plaque, tuberculosis, typhus, syphilis, etc. The discovery of penicillin in by Sir Alexander Fleming marked the beginning of the antibiotic revolution.

This antibiotic era witnessed the discovery of many new antibiotics, and the period between the s and s was named the golden era of discovery of novel antibiotics, and no new classes of antibiotics have been discovered since then. After that, the approach to discovery of new drugs was the modification of existing antibiotics. The antibiotic era revolutionized the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide, although with much success in developed countries. In the US for example, the leading causes of death changed from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases cardiovascular disease, cancer, and stroke , the average life expectancy at birth rose to A significant threat to the achievements of the antibiotic era is the antibiotic resistance, which is the ability of the bacteria to resist the effect of antibiotic for which they were initially sensitive to.

Resistance results from natural resistance in certain types of bacteria present even before antibiotics were discovered , genetic mutations in microbes, by one species acquiring resistance from another and selection pressure from antibiotic use that provides a competitive advantage for mutated strains. Suboptimal antibiotic doses, especially from misuse of antibiotics, help in the stepwise selection of resistance.

Resistant organisms are difficult to treat, requiring higher doses or alternative drugs, which are possibly more toxic and expensive. According to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention CDC , at least 2 million people become infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and more than 23, people die annually as a consequence of these infections. To worsen the situations are the emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, lack of development of new classes of antibiotics and continuing increasing antibiotic resistance, including superbugs bacteria with accumulated resistance to almost all available antibiotics , at alarming and dangerous levels worldwide.

Natural antibiotic resistance in bacteria may predate the discovery of some antibiotics, and it may be difficult to control since this is one of the natural coping mechanisms for their survival. However, the majority of the acquired antibiotics resistances are promoted by the socioeconomic and behavioural factors, especially in the developing countries.

7 deadly diseases the world has (almost) eradicated | World Economic Forum

Some of these factors include misuse of antibiotics by health professionals, misuse and inappropriate antibiotics use by unskilled practitioners and laypersons. Other factors are poor quality medicines, dissemination of resistant organisms through overcrowding and unhygienic condition, inadequate hospital infection control practices, inadequate surveillance, poverty, lack of resources to implement strategies against antibiotic resistance and lack of political will.

To halt this dangerous, vicious cycle, there is a need for the effective prevention and control of antibiotics resistance. The five strategic objectives of the global plan include: to improve awareness and understanding of antimicrobial resistance; to strengthen surveillance and research; to reduce the incidence of infection; to optimize the use of antimicrobial medicines and to ensure sustainable investment in countering antimicrobial resistance.

There is a need for the education of the patients and general community on the appropriate use of antibiotics, importance of infection preventive measures e. They should be educated on alternatives to antibiotics for the relief of symptoms and avoidance of antibiotic self-medication. Also essential is the continuing medical education for prescribers and dispensers on the rational use of antibiotics, containment of antibiotic resistance, disease prevention and infection control, the need to educate patients and the general public on antibiotics use and the importance of adherence to prescribed treatments.

In the hospital, management should ensure the establishment and strengthening of infection control programme, with the responsibility of effective antibiotic resistance control; the hospital drug and therapeutics committees should be duly constituted to oversee uses of antibiotics in the hospital. The committee should also develop and regularly update antibiotics treatment and prevention guidelines, and hospital antibiotics formularies.

Furthermore, the policy makers should: ensure a robust national action plan to tackle antibiotic resistance; improve surveillance of antibiotic-resistant infections and strengthen policies, programmes, and implementation of infection prevention and control measures.

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  5. They should regulate and promote the appropriate use and disposal of quality medicines, and make information available on the impact of antibiotic resistance. The healthcare industry should invest in research and development of new antibiotics, vaccines, diagnostic and other tools. And Government at all levels should fund research in the Universities and research institutes aiming at the discovery of new classes of antibiotics from the abundance plants in the developing countries.

    The inappropriate use of antibiotics in the agricultural sector must be regulated. Antibiotics must be given to animals under veterinary supervision and avoided for growth promotion or to prevent diseases. There is the need for immunization of animals to reduce the need for antibiotics, and using alternatives to antibiotics whenever available.

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    There should be promotion and application of good practices at all steps of production and processing of foods from animal and plant sources. Farmers must improve biosecurity on farms, and prevent infections through improved hygiene and animal welfare.